Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Ramayana History In Kishkindha Kanda

Lord Hanuman is well known for his extreme devotion to Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman is always depicted in the Indian folklaire as an icon of true devotion and a symbol of the power of true devotion and chastity.
Lord Hanuman's devotion to Lord Rama is symbolic of the devotion of the enlightened individual soul towards the supreme soul.
Many stories from the Indian literature tell the tales of Lord Hanuman protecting devotees of Lord Rama and helping those who seek his either spiritually or otherwise. Swami Tulasidas has written these lines in respect of Lord Hanuman's great character, in praise of his powers and also devotion.

Ramayana History In Kishkindha Kanda:

Rama's exaltation of sharad R^itu post-rainy or pre-autumnal season is the theme here. This season, which will be conducive to lovers, is painful to Rama in the absence of Seetha. This agony is compounding and turning into his ire, since Sugreeva's efforts in searching for Seetha are neither seen nor heard. Hence, Rama sends Lakshmana as an envoy to Kishkindha to decide whether Sugreeva's support is there or liquefied in the spree of his drinking and merrymaking.
A word about this chapter. Readers acquainted with critical version of Ramayana may find some 35 verses in this chapter that are unknown to them. They occur in all the other traditional versions and they carry the blemish of interpolation. They are inescapable in traditional versions, as age-old commentators have commented on them at length.

Verse Locator
guhaam praviSTe sugriive vimukte gagane ghanaiH |
varSa raatre sthito raamaH kaama shoka abhipiiDitaH || 4-30-1
paaNDuram gaganam dR^iSTvaa vimalam candra maNDalam |
shaaradiim rajaniim caiva dR^iSTvaa jyotsna anulepanaam || 4-30-2
kaama vR^ittam ca sugriivam naSTaam ca janaka aatmajaam |
dR^iSTvaa kaalam atiitam ca mumoha parama aaturaH || 4-30-3
1. sugriive guhaam praviSTe= Sugreeva, into cave, while entering; gagane ghanaiH vimukte= sky, of clouds, while releasing - while rains are ceasing; varSa raatre= in rainy, nights; kaama shoka abhi piiDitaH= of yearning, by misery, verily, distressed; sthitaH= staying - who spent rainy nights during his stay; raamaH= Rama; paaNDuram gaganam= whitish - silvern, sky is; vimalam candra maNDalam= with immaculate, moon's, sphere; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing; jyotsna anulepanaam= with moonbeams, enamelled; shaaradiim rajaniim caiva= autumnal, nights, also, thus; dR^iSTvaa= on observing; kaama vR^ittam sugriivam ca= in lust, engrossed, of Sugreeva, also; and; naSTaam janaka aatmajaam ca= lost - hopeless, of Janaka's, daughter - of Seetha, also; atiitam kaalam ca= time, rolled by, furthermore; dR^iSTvaa= on observing; parama aaturaH= with highly, impatience; mumoha ca= swooned, even.
On Sugreeva's entering the cave-like Kishkindha, Rama who spent rainy nights on that mountain with much distress owing to the misery of yearning for Seetha, has seen the immaculate sphere of moon on silvern sky freed by ceasing rains, and even autumnal nights that are enamelled with moonshine, and thus he observed that Seetha is lost hopelessly, engrossed in lust Sugreeva is lost to world intractably, and furthermore time too is being lost irretrievably, and thus he became highly impatient and even swooned. [4-30-1, 2, 3]

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sa tu sa.mj~naam upaagamya muhuurtaat matimaan nR^ipaH |
manaH sthaam api vaidehiim ci.ntayaamaasa raaghavaH || 4-30-4
4. matimaan = a thoughtful one; nR^ipaH= the king; saH raaghavaH= he, that Raghava; muhuurtaat samj~naam upaagamya= in a moment, consciousness, getting; manaH sthaam api vaidehiim= in heart, abiding, though, of Vaidehi; cintayaamaasa= started to think.
But on getting consciousness in a moment, that thoughtful king Raghava started to think of Vaidehi who is abiding in his heart, though not at his side. [4-30-4]

Verse Locator
dR^iSTvaa ca vimalam vyoma gata vidyut balaahakam |
saarasa aarava sa.mghuSTam vilalaapa aartayaa giraa || 4-30-5
5. gata vidyut balaahakam= one which is - set free, of electric-discharges [lightning,] dark-clouds; saarasa aarava samghuSTam= with Saarasa birds, shrieks, [now] vibrant with; vimalam ca= spotless, also; vyoma dR^iSTvaa= sky, on seeing; aartayaa giraa vilalaapa= with woeful, words, bemoaned.
On seeing the sky to be spic and span when set free of black-clouds and lightning, and even vibrant with the shrieks of Saarasa birds, Rama bemoaned in woeful words. [4-30-5]

Verse Locator
aasiinaH parvatasya agre hema dhaatu vibhuuSite |
shaaradam gaganam dR^iSTvaa jagaama manasaa priyaam || 4-30-6
6. parvatasya= of mountain; hema dhaatu vibhuuSite= gold, [and other] ores, embellished with; agre= on summit; aasiinaH= while sitting; Rama; shaaradam gaganam dR^iSTvaa= autumn, skyscape, on beholding; manasaa priyaam= conceptually, to his ladylove; jagaama= journeyed - on the rove; [and he soliloquised his thoughts in this way.]
Rama's concepts are on the rove towards his ladylove when he beheld the skyscape of autumn while sitting on the summit of a mountain that is embellished with gold and other ores, and he soliloquised his thoughts in this way. [4-30-6]

Verse Locator
saarasa aarava sa.nnaadaiH saarasa aarava naadinii |
yaa aashrame ramate baalaa saa adya me ramate katham || 4-30-7
7. saarasa aarava naadinii= Saarasa bird-like, callings, sounding - alike, Seetha; yaa baalaa= which, young one - Seetha; aashrame= in hermitage - of ours; me= to me - with me; saarasa aarava sannaadaiH= Saarasa birds, callings, with the resonance of; ramate= used to take delight; saa= she - Seetha; adya katham ramate= now, how, she can delight herself without me.
"Young Seetha with a voice that is a soundalike to the callings of Saarasa birds used to take delight in these resonant calls of Saarasa birds when we were together in hermitage, but how she might be taking delight in these chirrups now without me. [4-30-7]

When we were in hermitage, on listening the callings of Saarasa birds, Seetha used to call me to observe these birds in a voice that soundalike the Saarasa birds, and we were delighted to listen the callings of those birds together. But now staying among demons how can she take delight in seeing these seasonal birds or call me for help with such a voice, because her voice is lost in the blare of bawling demons.

Verse Locator
puSpitaam ca aasanaan dR^iSTvaa kaa.ncanaan iva nirmalaan |
katham saa ramate baalaa pashya.ntii maam apashyatii || 4-30-8
8. puSpitaam kaancanaan iva= flowered, gold, as if like; nirmalaan= flawless; aasanaan= Asana trees [Terminalia alata tomentosa, Bandhuuka trees]; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing; pashyantii= for me - while seeing, checking up for me; maam a + pashyatii= me, not, seeing - not finding me; saa baalaa= she, that dame; katham ramate= how, can she be happy.
"On seeing the flawless Asana trees flowered as if with golden flowers, she checks up for my availability thereabout, but now finding me nowhere near her, how can she be happy. [4-30-8]

On seeing these flowers Seetha used to go near the trees to check their beauty, and even used to check up for my availability to show their beauty to me. Now if she sees these seasonal flowers in that place where she is captivated, at least for a moment, but if she does no find me there, she looses her heart for these flowers.

Verse Locator
yaa puraa kalaha.msaanaam svareNa kala bhaaSiNii |
budhyate caaru sarvaa.ngii saa adya me ramate katham || 4-30-9
9. caaru sarva angii= enchanting, by all, her limbs; kala bhaaSiNii= clucky, voiced; yaa= which Seetha; puraa= earlier; kala hamsaanaam= of clucking-swans; svareNa [kalena]= melodious callings; [me] budhyate= [me] knowing myself, [waking up]; me saa= my, she - she who is mine; adya katham ramate= now, how, she takes delight.
"She who is enchanting to me by her well-proportioned limbs that clucky-voiced Seetha earlier used to wake me up in tune with the melodious callings of clucking-swans, but how that ladylove of mine might be amusing herself now. [4-30-9]

The word budhyate means 'waking up' apart from 'knowing' etc. Thus, 'earlier, when I was with Seetha I used to know myself as the 'Being' as and when her divine and swanlike voice used to address me, which voice is incidentally equals the hymn Gayatri, and which I used to hear continuously. But now without her, Shri, Goddess Lakshmi, I am presently not able to know myself.'

'Earlier when in hermitage Seetha used to wake me up with her clucky-voice synchronising with the clucking of swans. On my awakening, I used to see her auspicious face and all-charming physique, by that I daily used to have a waking up protocol, suprabhaata seva, now how she can do it or how I can enjoy her sight every morning.

Verse Locator
niHsvanam cakravaakaanaam nishamya sahacaariNaam |
puNDariikavishaalaakSii katham eSaa bhaviSyati || 4-30-10
10. puNDariika vishaala akSii= white-lotus like, broad, eyed one; eSaa= this -Seetha; saha caariNaam cakravaakaanaam= [that always] together - in couples, moving, of Cakravaka birds; niH svanam nishamya= out, cry - sharp notes, on listening; katham bhaviSyati= how, she, will be - what becomes of her.
"On hearing the sharp notes of Cakravaka birds that always move together in couples, what will become of this white-lotus-like broad-eyed Seetha, since she is not together with me. [4-30-10]

Verse Locator
saraa.msi sarito vaapiiH kaananaani vanaani ca |
taam vinaa mR^igashaavaakSiim caran na adya sukham labhe || 4-30-11
11. saraamsi saritaH vaapiiH= lakes, rivers, tanks - which are naturally enjoyable; kaananaani vanaani ca= forests, woodlands, also; caran= while wandering; adya= now; taam mR^igashaavaakSiim vinaa= her, deer-eyed lady, without; sukham na labhe= joy, not, - I am - able to get.
"I am not able to enjoy myself without that deer-eyed lady though wandering around enjoyable lakes, rivers, tanks, forests and woodlands, whose thirst is drenched by rainwater and my thirsting for her is not. [4-30-11]

Verse Locator
api taam mat viyogaat ca saukumaaryaat ca bhaaminiim |
suduuram piiDayet kaamaH sharat guNa nira.ntaraH || 4-30-12
12. sharat guNa nir antaraH= autumnal, features, without, gap - with plethora of provocative features of autumn; kaamaH= Love-god; saukumaaryaat= by her frailty; mat viyogaat ca= by my, separation, also; taam bhaaminiim= her, that lady; su duuram= very, long - prolongedly; piiDayet api= will agonise, is it - won't he.
"The Love-god with a plethora of provocative autumnal features will be prolongedly agonising her, because she is separated from me, and because her ladyship is a frailty - won't he?" Thus Rama worried for Seetha. [4-30-12]

'Will the Love-god Manmatha, with all his paraphernalia of licentious autumnal aspects, like even-climate, even-circumstance and even-desire, will he leave Seetha? Even on knowing fully well that she is separated from me besides being a delicate person, will that Love-god leave her alone? No, He will not... for, merciless is that Manmatha, God of Love, and He may agonise Seetha till death, for she is an unyielding woman to others pati vrata , nor I am at her side.'

Verse Locator
evam aadi narashreSTho vilalaapa nR^ipaatmajaH |
viha.mga iva saara.ngaH salilam tridasheshvaraat || 4-30-13
13. nara shreSThaH= among men, the best one; nR^ipa aatmajaH= king's, son - Rama; tridasha iishvaraat= divinities, from the king of - from Indra; salilam= for water, requiring water; saarangaH= Caataka, Saaranga, Rain-cuckoo; vihanga iva= bird, as with; evam aadi= so on, so forth; vilalaapa= keened over.
So on and so forth that best one among men and the son of a king keened over, like a Rain-cuckoo which will be keen on Indra, the king of divinities, for rainy-water. [4-30-13]

The Caataka or Saaranga birds are said to be a sort of bird-flock which thrive on rain water alone, but not on water in rivers or brooks. They fly up to skies to swill the water directly from clouds granted by Indra. So also Rama is desirous of Seetha alone for his theory is 'one-man-one-wife.' Thereby he does not eye other women. In epical aesthetics this is called anukuula naayaka lakshaNa 'hero in harmony.'

Verse Locator
tataH ca.ncuurya ramyeSu phalaarthii giri saanuSu |
dadarsha paryupaavR^itto lakSmiivaan lakSmaNo agrajam || 4-30-14
14. tataH= then; phala arthii= fruits, seeker - one gone in search of; ramyeSu giri saanuSu= pleasant, on mountain, terraces; cancuurya= after meandering; paryupaavR^ittaH [pari upa aa vaR^ittaH]= who returned; lakSmiivaan lakSmaNaH= propitious, Lakshmana; agrajam dadarsha= at his elder brother, has seen.
Meandering on the pleasant mountain-terraces in search of fruits brilliant Lakshmana returned and has seen his elder brother Rama. [4-30-14]

Verse Locator
sa cintayaa dussahayaa pariitam
visa.mj~nam ekam vijane manasvii |
bhraatur viSaadaat tvarito ati diinaH
samiikSya saumitriH uvaaca raamam || 4-30-15
15. manasvii= noble-hearted one; saH saumitriH= he, that Saumitri; vi jane= without, people - in lonely place; ekam= he who is - lone one; duH sahayaa= un, bearable; cintayaa pariitam= sadness, beset with; vi + sanj~nam= without, awareness - with a vacuous posture; samiikSya= on observing - Rama; bhraatuH viSaadaat= owing to brother's, sadness; ati diinaH= on becoming - very, miserable Lakshmana; tvaritaH raamam uvaaca= fretfully, to Rama, spoke.
Noble-hearted Saumitri, on observing lone Rama in a lonely place, who is beset with unbearable sadness and whose posture is vacuous, became very miserable for the sad condition of his brother, and spoke to Rama fretfully. [4-30-15]

Verse Locator
kim aarya kaamasya vasham gatena
kim aatma pauruSya paraabhavena |
ayam hriyaa sa.mhriyate samaadhiH
kim atra yogena nivartitena || 4-30-16
16. aarya= oh, noble one; kaamasya vasham gatena= of passion, fetters, get into; kim prayojanam= what, is the use; aatma pauruSya paraabhavena= soul's, bold-temper, by trouncing; kim= what - is the use; and; hriyaa= remorseful - with sadness; ayam samaadhiH= this, self-concentration - self-assurance; sam hriyate= verily, stealing - arrogated; atra nivartitena yogena= now, with reverted, association - with the aim, by retracing your steps from the goal]; kim; what - purpose can be achieved.
"Oh, noble one, what is the use in getting into fetters of passion, what for soul's bold-temper is being trounced, this remorseful sadness is arrogating self-assurance, and what purpose can be achieved now in retracing steps from the goal. [4-30-16]

'The time when one has to keep up his bold-temper, without subjugation to passional temperance has arrived now, namely the autumn, and now loosing heart to shameful sadness, and loosing manly boldness to seasonal passions... what purpose can be achieved by it?' Maheshvara Tiirtha.

Verse Locator
kriyaabhiyogam manasaH prasaadam
samaadhi yoga anugatam ca kaalam |
sahaaya saamarthyam adiina sattvaH
sva karma hetum ca kuruSva taata 4-30-17
17. taata= oh, dear sir; a diina sattvaH= becoming un, deterred, in spirit; kriya abhiyogam [kuruSva]= in mission, you engage in; manasaH prasaadam [kuruSva]= mind's, good disposition [make happen]; samaadhi yoga anugatam= concentration [steadfastness,] yogic thinking [ideation,] following [in accordance with,] also; kaalam ca= time [kuruSva= you have to control]; sahaaya saamarthyam [kuruSva]= helpmate's, capabilities [kuruSva= be gathered by you]; hetum= basis [for achieving results]; sva karma ca= your own, endeavour [daily rituals to gods,] also; hetum= as means; kuruSva= you perform.
"Oh, dear sir, engage yourself in your mission with an undeterred spirit and with a good disposition of mind, and bring time under control with steadfastness and ideation, and the capabilities of your helpmates, say Sugreeva and others be gathered, and the basis for your achievements, say daily rituals towards gods, be performed by you as your means. [4-30-17]

Verse Locator
na jaanakii maanava va.msha naatha
tvayaa sanaathaa sulabhaa pareNa |
na ca agni cuuDaam jvalitaam upetya
na dahyate viira varaarha kashcit || 4-30-18
18. maanava vamsha naatha= oh, human, kindred's, lord of; tvayaa sa naathaa jaanakii= you, having, as husband, Janaki; pareNa su labhaa= by others, easily, attainable; na= she is not; viira= oh, brave one; vara arha= oh, for high honour, eligible one - oh, Rama; jvalitaam agni cuuDaam= flaring, fire's, tongue; upetya= on nearing; kashcit= anyone; na dahyate= will not, bur; iti [cet na]= thus, if said, no - not so.
"Oh, the lord of human kindred, with you as her husband Janaki is not an easily attainable one for others, oh, highly honourable one, if it is said that none will be burnt if he nears the tongues of flaming fire, oh, brave one, it is not so, for Janaki is a flaming fire, and anyone nearing her in ill-will will be burnt to ashes like a grass-hopper." Thus Lakshmana said to Rama. [4-30-18]

Verse Locator
salakSaNam lakSmaNam apradhR^iSyam
svabhaavajam vaakyam uvaaca raamaH |
hitam ca pathyam ca naya prasaktam
sasaama dharmaartha samaahitam ca || 4-30-19
19. sa lakSaNam= which words are - seemly; a + pradhR^iSyam= un, deniable; svabhaava jam= natural [of Lakshmana's nature,] emerged from; hitam ca pathyam ca= expedient, also, tasteful, also; naya prasaktam= moral, abiding; sa saama= which are - with, friendliness; dharma artha samaahitam ca= righteousness, meaningfulness, abounding in, also; raamaH= Rama; lakSmaNam= to Lakshmana; vaakyam= words; uvaaca= spoke.
raamaH= Rama; sa lakSaNam= he who is with, seemliness - Lakshmana; a + pradhR^iSyam= un, deniable one; lakSmaNam= to Lakshmana; svabhaava jam= natural [of Rama's words,] emerged; hitam ca pathyam ca= expedient, also, tasteful, also; naya prasaktam= moral, abiding; sa saama= which are - with, friendliness; dharma artha samaahitam ca= righteousness, meaningfulness, abounding in, also; vaakyam= words; uvaaca spoke.
Lakshmana with his seemliness spoke those undeniable and expedient words that emerged from his very nature, which are tasteful, morally abiding, and further abounding with friendliness, righteousness, and meaningfulness, and on listening such words Rama spoke to Lakshmana.

Rama spoke to seemly and undeniable Lakshmana with words that emerged from his very nature, which are tasteful, morally abiding, and further abounding with friendliness, righteousness, and meaningfulness.[4-30-19]

Verse Locator
nissa.mshayam kaaryam avekSitavyam
kriyaa visheSo api anuvartitavyaH |
na tu pravR^iddhasya duraasadasya
kumaara viiryasya phalam ca cintyam || 4-30-20
20. kumaara= oh, boy; niH samshayam= without, doubt; kaaryam avekSitavyam= accomplishment [of task,] is to be kept in view; kriyaa visheSaH api anu vartitavyaH= task's, factors, even, in tow, are to be followed; pra vR^iddhasya= well, intensified - unwieldy; dur aasadasya= un, attainable; viiryasya [kaaryasya]= of formidability] of task; phalam ca= fruit, about; cintyam= is to be thought over; na nu= isn't it.
"Doubtless accomplishment of the task is to be held in view, even oh, boy, the factors that contribute to its accomplishment, like enthusiasm, helpmates etc., are to be followed through, and not only these aspects but we also have to observe the fruition of task when that task is becoming unwieldy, unattainable and formidable, along with the lapse of time and lapsing of help." Thus Rama said to Lakshmana. [4-30-20]

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atha padma palaasha akSiim maithiliim anucintayan |
uvaaca lakSmaNam raamo mukhena parishuSyataa || 4-30-21
21. atha= thereafter; raamaH= Rama; padma palaasha akSiim= lotus, petal, eyed one; maithiliim anucintayan= of Maithili, thinking about; pari shuSyataa mukhena= with verily, dried-up, face; lakSmaNam uvaaca= to Lakshmana, spoke.
On thinking about the fruit of his mammoth task, namely that lotus-petal-eyed Maithili, thereafter Rama spoke to Lakshmana with a dried-up face. [4-30-21]

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tarpayitvaa sahasraakSaH salilena vasu.mdharaam |
nirvartayitvaa sasyaani kR^ita karmaa vyavasthitaH || 4-30-22
22. sahasra akSaH= thousand, eyed Indra; salilena vasundharaam tarpayitvaa= with waters, mother earth, on oblating - satisfying; sasyaani nirvartayitvaa= crops, having accomplished; kR^ita karmaa vyavasthitaH= on accomplishing, his task, is complacent.
"On satisfying mother earth with rainwater and on effectuating the crops on earth, the Thousand-eyed Indra is complacent as his task is effectuated, whereas my task is yet to take off. [4-30-22]

Here a selfless philanthropist who accords benefits on his own without any petition or prayer is suggested in referring to Indra and rains, and Rama has not yet done such act in respect of Seetha.

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diirgha ga.mbhiira nirghoSaaH shaila druma purogamaaH |
visR^ijya salilam meghaaH parishraa.ntaa nR^ipa aatmaja || 4-30-23
23. nR^ipa aatmaja= oh, king's, son; diirgha gambhiira nirghoSaaH= protracted, profound, with peals; shaila druma puraH gamaaH= mountains, trees, overhead, going; meghaaH salilam visR^ijya= clouds, waters, on let loosing; pari shraantaa= retired.
"Clouds roving on the tops of mountains and trees with their protracted and profound peals have let the water loose and they are now retired, oh, prince, but tireless are rumbles and grumbles in my heart, thus I cannot retire. [4-30-23]

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niila utpala dala shyaamaH shyaamii kR^itvaa disho dasha |
vimadaa iva maata.ngaaH shaanta vegaaH payo dharaaH || 4-30-24
24. niila utpala dala shyaamaH= blue, lotus, petal-like, blue-blackish; payaH dharaaH= water, carriers - clouds; dasha dishaH= ten, quarters; shyaamii kR^itvaa= black, on making - directions; vi madaa maatangaaH iva= without, rut, elephants, as with; shaanta vegaaH= quietened, in nimbleness.
"On blackening ten quarters of earth blue-black clouds that looked like petals of blue-lotuses are now quietened in their nimbleness like rut-less elephants. [4-30-24]

There are eight elephants carrying the universe from its eight corners aSTa diggaja-s . They and the elephantine-clouds that give waters, both kinds of elephants are responsible for world's sustenance, but they now are nonchalant on performing their duties, along with their administrator Indra. Rama is not able to do his duty due to slackness of Sugreeva, and thus he is questioning himself whether his mission / incarnation is going to be futile or worthwhile.

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